The federal government recognized the need to influence organizational conduct concerning discriminatory impediments to professional advancements. In 1991, the Glass Ceiling Act, a part of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, was passed to study and report on the artificial barriers to advancement and the under-representation of minorities and women in leadership positions. The report revealed that although some progress had been made, efforts were still needed to address the impenetrable barriers that continue to deprive women and minorities of access to high-level positions. After the report was issued, the reporting team disbanded and the discriminatory practices continued. The government failed to properly respond to the reported results. Leadership's inaction, in the face of discrimination, is perceived as tacit approval of the discriminatory practices. The inaction might explain the immortality of the glass/plexiglass ceiling. Until leaders actively promote fairness and equality, minorities and women will continue to be victimized by the effects of the plexiglass ceiling.
Scholars, in past studies, have found that glass ceiling victimization correlates with gender (i.e., women, rather than men, face glass ceilings in their professions). While some researchers have not revealed findings supporting the notion that minority men experience the glass ceiling, other researchers concluded glass ceilings do affect minority males. A UCLA study found that women and minorities hold less than 5% of the managerial positions in the 1000 largest companies in the USA. The Department of Labor conducted a study which concluded that middle and senior level management positions in nearly 100 of the largest companies in the USA still reflect a shortfall of women and minorities. According to the Department of Labor, many companies persist with discriminatory practices. Discriminatory practices, however, are not limited to companies. Some women and minority men who work for the federal government also experience the effects of the glass/plexiglass ceiling.
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